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Històric: Solèctria Sunrise: 1996 i 600km autonom (Read 11778 times)

Històric: Solèctria Sunrise: 1996 i 600km autonom
18.06.2008 a les 01:30:45
La destrucció dels EV-1 al 2003 per part de les petrolieres, considerat el millor cotxes elèctric del segle XX, va portar a filmar el documental "who killed the elèctric car", on quedava evident que als Estats Units s'ha estat frenant el vehicle elèctric de manera sistemàtica.

Prova d'això, la sorpresa meva de trobar, de casualitat,  que el famós EV1 no va ser el primer de la nova generació de vehicles elèctrics: aquest honor correspon al Solectria Sunrise. Amb el record d'autonomia de 600 km al 1996, i una velocitat punta de 120 km/h,  ens trobem davant d'una joia tecnològica que incomprensiblement ha estat condemnada al oblid...
Avui es la primera vegada que entro en contacte amb aquesta marca: SUNRISE, pero una ràpida consulta al "ev album" revela propietaris orgullosos amb  vehicles que es remonten a principis dels 90!  

La marca va desaparèixer misteriosament quan justament anava a comercialitzar el millor vehicle elèctric mai construït en tota la història de la humanitat. Es que era massa bo que van agafar por els càrters fòssils?.

Acabo de llegir que la marca es va passar a dir azure dynamics.
Una ullada a la web revela vehicles monstruosos únicament hibrids. No seria descabellat imaginar que són els únics vehicles que els admeten comercialitzat els carters del petroli. Mare meva......

Intentaré cercar referències a veure si en trec l'entrellat.

Us deixo amb aquesta entrada al EV-album:

I aquest article sobre el sunrise. Data del 1996, i fa referència a un record d'autonomia de... 375 milles!!! Més de 600km!

Solectria Sunrise Sets New EV Range Record - 375 Miles
Source: Solectria

Solectria Sunrise EV- 375 Miles on a charge in 1996(Wilmington, MA) -- Solectria Corporation announced today that unofficial results indicate the Solectria Sunrise electric sedan powered by Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries set a new electric vehicle range record by completing 375 miles on a single charge in the third day of racing in the 1996 NESEA American Tour de Sol, the national solar and electric vehicle (EV) championship. "This success proves to the world that clean zero emission vehicles can provide range and performance comparable to or better than that of a typical gas car," commented Solectria CEO James Worden, who is driving the Sunrise during the race. The Sunrise, entered in the race by the Northeast Alternative Vehicle Consortium (NAVC), the Boston Edison Company, and Solectria, completed 258 miles on a single charge yesterday during day two of this prestigious event. Today's new record represents greater than a 50% improvement over last year's record breaking run of 238 miles. A total of six electric vehicles produced by Solectria are competing in the eighth annual running of this road rally, which began in New York City on May 12th, and ends in Washington, DC on May 16th.

This race marks the second public competition of the Solectria Sunrise, a unique, full-size, four passenger, all-composite sedan that promises to revolutionize the EV industry. The Sunrise was designed from the ground up to incorporate the latest advances in aerodynamics, material science, and Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery technology. Funding for the Sunrise Project, an ongoing effort to provide efficient, safe, and affordable high-performance EVs to the marketplace, has been coordinated by the Boston-based NAVC, with co-funding by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Boston Edison Company, and other corporate partners.

A Solectria Force NiMH sedan entered in the race likewise turned in a superb performance, traveling 244 miles today on a single charge in mixed city/highway driving, edging out a Ford Ecostar which completed 227 miles. The Force NiMH also claimed the first pole position at the beginning of the race by winning an acceleration trial, beating the Ford EV which placed second. The Force NiMH sedan is the first commercially available EV equipped with state-of-the-art Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries produced by Ovonic Battery Company, a subsidiary of Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. [OTC-ENER]. "Just a few years ago, production EVs with a range over 100 miles were unheard of. Today, we are delivering these high- performance, long-range vehicles to customers throughout the United States, in Europe, and in Asia," stated Mark Dockser, vice president of planning and business development.

Four more Solectria Force sedans -- America's single most popular EV -- have been entered, and all did well today. A 1996 model owned by Jersey Central Power & Light traveled 129 miles on a single charge. A 1995 model owned by the Connecticut-based Rideshare Company went 141 miles, and a 1994 model owned by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources covered 132 miles. Both of these latter two vehicles received support from the NAVC, and all three of these cars used lead acid batteries. A 1993 Force owned by the Virginia Power Company and entered by the Washington, DC based State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials, traveled 107 miles on a single charge of its three-year old Nickel-Cadmium battery pack. "These achievements by our customers demonstrate beautifully the real-world capabilities of today's advanced EVs," observed Solectria president Anita Rajan.

In addition to the NAVC, which is co-sponsoring three of the six Solectria vehicles entered in the race, other sponsors supporting Solectria's efforts in this event include the Boston Edison Company, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, the Ovonic Battery Company, Sanoh Industrial Co., Ltd., and Quin-T Corporation.

With more than one million miles accumulated by over 200 Solectria electric vehicles produced since 1991, Solectria cars and trucks have proven to be the EVs of choice for public and corporate fleets throughout the U.S. and around the world. The Solectria Force and Solectria E-10 electric pickup truck are the only production electric vehicles that have met the rigorous performance and safety standards set by the nationwide electric utility industry and U.S. Department of Energy coordinated EV America program. A leader in the EV industry, Solectria has pioneered many technological innovations in the manufacturing of advanced EVs and EV components, including all- electric air conditioning and heating, and an automatic battery thermal management system to keep vehicle range consistent even in the worst winter conditions. Solectria EVs are now used by utilities, government agencies and private companies in thirty-five states and five foreign countries, and are widely recognized as the finest production EVs on the road.

A media event will take place at the Finish Line on the Mall at 3rd Street in Washington, DC on Thursday, May 16th from noon to 1 PM. Photos of Solectria's vehicles are available upon request, or may be found at The American Tour de Sol is organized annually by the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) of Greenfield, Massachusetts.

FAX 508-658-3224
Solectria Press Release - May 14, 1996
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Re: Solèctria Sunrise: 1996 i 600km autonomia
Reply #1 - 18.06.2008 a les 02:02:34
Una punt de curiositat....
La organitzadora del tour de sol del 1996 on va participar el sunrise és la NESEA, Northeast Sustainable Energy Association. En la pàgina web, secció tour de sol,sembla (tot i que no ho puc assegurar) que ja no organitzen el tour de sol. El event que li dona continuitat és el 21st Century Automotive Challenge.

l'associació que porta el nou event: Eastern Electric Vehicle Club, en la pàgina web fa referència a diesels, biodieles, i hibrids. els elèctrics i solars, desapareguts!!!!!!!!

In Three Divisions
1. Gasoline Cars, Trucks and SUVs.
2. Diesel and Biodiesel Vehicles
3. Gasoline-Electric Hybrids.

No entenc res... Francament... em venen ganes de plorar.
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Re: Solèctria Sunrise: 1996 i 600km autonomia
Reply #2 - 18.06.2008 a les 07:48:56

Sembla que part del miracle del sunrise i el ev1  va ser possible a un nou tipus de bateries:

Ovonic NiMH Batteries Power EV From Boston to New York on a Single Charge

ROY, Mich., Oct. 24 -- Powered by Ovonic nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries, a Solectria Sunrise, 4-passenger prototype electric vehicle (EV) sedan, traveled from Boston to New York City on a single charge at normal highway speeds. Mr. S. R. Ovshinsky and Dr. I. M. Ovshinsky, co-founders of Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD), and its subsidiary Ovonic Battery Co., Inc. (Ovonic Battery) congratulated Mr. James Worden, CEO of Solectria Corporation, as he completed the drive in front of the New York Academy of Sciences building in New York City. Mr. Ovshinsky said,
"The Ovonic NiMH battery with its high specific energy and robust design, demonstrated that it can provide electric vehicles (EVs) with a driving range that makes them a practical choice for many motorists."
With about 40% of daily driving trips in the United States under 40 miles, the long-life, maintenance-free Ovonic NiMH batteries are an ideal choice for EV manufacturers who want to provide their customers with outstanding acceleration and range, ample driving range reserve, and the convenience of quick charge as well as at-home charging.

Mr. R. C. Stempel, chairman of ECD noted that, "Early EV buyers like the smooth, fast and quiet driving characteristics coupled with low operating costs." The Sunrise EV, with a prototype composite fiber body, was equipped with a 30 kW Ovonic NiMH battery pack. A total of 28.3 kW was used from the pack to travel the 216 miles between City Hall Square, Boston, and the N.Y. Academy of Science in New York City at an average speed of 55 MPH with the driver, one passenger and their luggage on board. At the end of the trip there was still ample range remaining. All significant manufacturers of NiMH batteries operate under agreements with ECD and Ovonic Battery, which originated the NiMH battery technology. Proprietary rechargeable Ovonic NiMH batteries are based on new hydrogen storage principles and materials invented and developed by ECD and Ovonic Battery. They were initially developed and commercialized in small cell sizes for notebook computers, cellular phones and other portable electronic devices. Ovonic batteries are ideal in these applications since they store more than twice as much energy per unit weight as lead-acid or nickel-cadmium batteries. Ovonic NiMH batteries have high power, long cycle life, no memory effect, are environmentally friendly and are ideally suited for EV and Hybrid electric vehicles.

The Ovonic NiMH battery continues to gain global acceptance to provide power for portable electronic devices and electric bicycles, scooters and vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and numerous other applications. This fall, General Motors, has said it will introduce the GM Ovonic NiMH battery in the EV1 and the Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles. GM Ovonic NiMH batteries are being manufactured by GM Ovonic, L.L.C., the joint venture between GM and Ovonic Battery established for that purpose. Based on the Ovonic "Family of Batteries," GM Ovonic L.L.C. expects to produce a full product line of NiMH batteries for EVs and HEVs. Solectria is one of the leaders in the EV industry and they have pioneered many technological innovations in the manufacturing of advanced EVs and EV components, including AC induction motors, brushless permanent magnet motors, and high efficiency motor controllers. Other innovations include all-electric air conditioning and heating, and an automatic battery thermal management system to keep vehicle range consistent even in the coldest winter conditions. Solectria cars and trucks can be found in many public and corporate fleets throughout the U.S. and around the world, and are widely recognized as among the finest production EVs on the road. Ovonic Battery is proud that Solectria has selected Ovonic NiMH batteries for use in many of their vehicles now in daily service.

La marca segueix existint, pero no es dedica a les bateries per a cotxes, sinó a plaques solars flexibles....
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Re: Solèctria Sunrise ev2. Resurrecció?
Reply #3 - 19.06.2008 a les 00:50:45
Un grup d'entusiastes van rebre en donació el últim xassís del sunrise el 2005, que no es va construir mai.
A partir del xassís volen desenvolupar un kit per vendre'l.

Els desitgem el millor en aquesta empresa, tot i que el enfocament no sempre és el més òptim... en el prototip han col·locat 750 kg de bateria de plom que permet només 150 km d'autonomia. Les suspensions i el xassís també pesen molt més!!... Massa pes, poca cura per la eficiència! On són aquells 600 km del primer sunrise??
Abans d'invertir-hi 100.000 dollars, jo abans em decanto pel tesla. Tot fet  i amb garantia!
la pagina web:

Welcome! We are a group of dedicated electric vehicle enthusiasts whose goal is to create an affordable, high performance electric kit car that anyone of modest skill can assemble. The Sunrise EV2 is a four-passenger pure electric sports sedan, designed to meet all the safety, performance, and comfort requirements of a modern state-of-the-art automobile.

The original Sunrise was designed by Solectria Corp. using the Hypercar principles of Amory Lovins. It achieved remarkable efficiency and range, through the use of lightweight construction, innovative design, and superb aerodynamics. Unfortunately, only a handful were produced before Solectria went out of business.

We bought the last unfinished Sunrise from Solectria CEO James Worden. It is being redesigned as a kit car, along the lines followed by manufacturers of light plane kits for the EAA (Experimental Aircraft Association). The steps are:

   * Step One: Build a working prototype, that interested parties can see and drive. Test the design and verify performance.
   * Step Two: Publish plans, sufficient to build the entire car from scratch, just as we are doing now.
   * Step Three: Provide key components produced from our molds and tooling, such as fiberglass body and welded chassis parts, to simplify construction.
   * Step Four: Produce parts kits and subassemblies. For example, all the major parts needed to build the body, rear subframe, wiring harness, etc.
   * Step Five: Offer a complete car kit. Combined with parts from a donor vehicle and purchased new on the open market, anyone who can handle a screwdriver and wrench could put it together.
   * Step Six: Someday, perhaps a fully assembled production automobile. I doubt we will get to this point for years, due to the costly regulatory requirements.

Our goal is to make the Sunrise EV2 as modular and open source as possible; like a PC clone, where many different parts can be used, from many different vendors. We'll provide the basic "box". Builders can then use any motor, controller, batteries, charger, interior, and instrumentation they like. Depending on your budget and performance requirements, your Sunrise can be AC or DC, lead-acid or lithium batteries, etc.

We look forward to having a community of Sunrise EV2 builders, where members can exchange ideas, buy/sell/trade parts, and assist others in building their cars.


Solectria Sunrise vs. Sunrise EV2 Comparison

The Solectria Sunrise cost over $100,000 because it was designed to be mass produced in high volumes, but was actually hand made in low volumes. It was optimized for efficiency, not performance; and built around donor car parts that are now over 15 years old. There were also aspects that were unfinished, to be optimized later if/when full production could be reached.

The Sunrise EV2 design has therefore been updated and improved in a number of areas. Here are the differences between the original and our version.

Battery Box:

   * The original was 108"L x 14.5"W x 11"H. It ran from just behind the front wheels to just behind the rear wheels. This made access difficult, and limited battery size choices.
   * The EV2 box is slightly larger; 120"L x 15"W x 12"H. This allows a much larger range of standard batteries. It extends to the front bumper. The batteries are in a tray that slides out with the front bumper, for fast easy servicing and maintenance. Multiple trays can be used; one for range, one for speed, or even a hybrid tray that's half batteries and half ICE generator.


   * The original had manual Geo Metro front disks, and Dodge Neon rear drum brakes. The AC drive system provided regenerative braking.
   * The EV2 braking system comes from the donor car. Depending on the year and options chosen, it will be power assisted front disks, rear disks or drums, and with or without ABS. The vacuum pump doubles as an air compressor for adjusting air bag ride height and emergency tire inflating. Regenerative braking is not planned for the prototype (Minnesota is pretty flat), but is provided for if desired.


   * Solectria used an expensive custom air cooled AC induction motor, rated at 50 KW. Though highly efficient, acceleration was weak and there were overheating problems.
   * Though any motor can be used in the EV2, we're using a conventional Netgain WarP 9" series DC motor in the prototype. Though this reduces efficiency 10%, price is drastically lower and this type of motor provides extremely high levels of peak power. The motor is mounted behind the rear wheels and directly coupled to the differential with a standard spider coupler with virtually no machining.


   * The original Geo Metro transaxle drove the front wheels. It was locked in 2nd gear, as the AC motor had a 13,000 RPM limit and was electrically reversed. Though light, it was not very strong. As the batteries were in the rear, you had the odd situation of a front wheel drive car that is tail-heavy -- not good for handling.
   * The EV2 has been changed to rear wheel drive, more befitting a sports car. A Ford 8.8" differential from the donor car is used, with new gears for a 5:1 ratio. This is a very strong part, often used in drag racing. No transmission is needed, and the motor is electrically reversed. The differential is flipped 180 degrees so it is upside down with the drive shaft pointing rearward. Dry sump lubrication is used with lighter weight oil to improve efficiency.


   * The original used 1994 Geo Metro front, and 1994 Dodge Neon rear suspension components. Though light, it was inadequate for the car's 2979 lbs GVWR; handling and braking were mediocre.
   * The EV2 uses 1989-1997 Ford Thunderbird or Mercury Cougar front and rear suspension components. These cars are "super coupes" with the excellent handling of luxury sports cars. Their 4400+ lbs GVWR safely carries considerably more weight. They have the power disk brakes and power steering expected in a modern car. Everything attaches to easily removed bolt-in front and rear subframes. Air bags and adjustable shock absorbers are used to accomodate the large range of vehicle and battery pack weights possible.

Wheels and Tires:

   * Original: 13" Geo Metro front and Dodge Neon rear, with different bolt circles made matching front/rear rims difficult.
   * EV2: 15" from Thunderbird/Cougar donor. We are using Goodyear Integrity 185/65R15 low rolling resistance tires from the 2004-07 Prius.

Sunrise EV2 Prototype Specifications

   * length 178" (452 cm)
   * width 74" (188 cm)
   * height 54" (137 cm)
   * wheelbase 104" (264 cm)


   * curb weight without batteries 1650 lb (750 kg)
   * battery pack weight 1650 lbs (750 kg)
   * payload 900 lb (409 kg)
   * GVWR 4200 lb (1909 kg)

Drive system

   * Netgain WarP 9" series DC motor
   * Cafe Electric Zilla 2K-LV 156vdc 2000amp controller
   * direct rear wheel drive via 5:1 differential (no clutch or transmission)


   * 22 6v GC2 size lead-acid batteries
   * batteries housed in easy-to-remove slide-out tray, 120"L x 15"W x 12"H
   * any type battery can be used; lead-acid, nicad, nimh, lithium, etc.


   * front: steel subframe with independent upper/lower A-arms, air springs, adjustable shock absorbers
   * variable-assist rack-and-pinion power steering
   * rear: aluminum subframe with independent upper/lower arms, air springs, adjustable shocks


   * vacuum power assisted antilock disk brakes


   * Goodyear Integrity 185/65R15 low rolling resistance


   * acceleration: 0-30 mph in 4 seconds, 0-60 mph in 9 seconds
   * range (lead-acid): 60 miles at 60 mph, 85/55 miles city/highway

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